Category: H II nebula

NGC6604 Open cluster

NGC6604 is an open cluster associated with nebulosity. It is located not far from my favorite Eagle nebula in constellation Serpens and it’s 5500 light-years far from the Earth. Since this deep space object is not that high on the skies, I rather used narrow band filters, because this part of the skies is strongly influenced by the light pollution, which is coming from the nearest town. First picture is processed in “fake” Hubble color palette, the second one should more or less look like in “true” color.


NGC2264 Cone nebula

Cone nebula is a giant cloud of ionized hydrogen gas, which includes the Christmas Tree Cluster. It’s located between two bright winter stars Betelgeuse (constellation Orion) and Procyon (Canis Minor) and it’s 2700 light-years far from the Solar System. There is a famous picture from Hubble Space telescope of the tip of the cone – star forming complex.

Bi-color picture didn’t look as I expected, therefore I decided to publish only mono version of hydrogen alpha channel.


M42 Great nebula in Orion

I don’t want to repeat myself, therefore the description on the most famous nebula visible from northern hemisphere can be found here.

The previous picture has some strange halo around the bright Hatsya star and I was thinking why. Recently similar picture came out of my telescope and I realized that this strange halo is caused by the frost on the secondary mirror. I manufacture home-made dew shield and I don’t have these problems anymore.

This picture is, as usual, composed out of narrow band pictures. When I look at it I am still not happy, therefore I hope next year will be better weather and I will make a better picture.


NGC7380 Wizard nebula

Wizard nebula is an open cluster associated with nebulosity.  Visually, it has apparent size of the full Moon, but since it’s very far from the Earth (7200 light years), its real diameter is about 100 light years.

So, where is the wizard located? It took me a while to find him, but if you turn your head 90° counter-clockwise, you see two darker hands. It looks like he is trying to grab something. Then above the hands you see the wizard’s conical hat.

First picture is a composition of 3 narrow band pictures (Ha, OIII and SII) and composed in Hubble Space Telescope palette. Second one is more-or less visible spectrum.

ngc7380-wizard-2016-10-06-30c-600s-32x-haoiiisii-fl1000-dbe-proc ngc7380-wizard-2016-10-06-30c-600s-32x-haoiiisii-fl1000-dbe-rgbeq


NGC6820 Nebula

NGC6820 Nebula doesn’t have a name, so let’s call it Hidden octopus nebula (because only one tentacle is visible). Hidden octopus nebula is a giant cloud (50 light years in diameter) of ionized hydrogen alpha gas, where new stars are born. The tentacle forms similar structure just like in more famous M16 Eagle nebula. It’s located in constellation Vulpecula (Little fox) not far from M27 Dumbbell nebula and it’s 6000 light year from Earth.

The picture was processed in bi-color technique. This means: two narrow band pictures, one H alpha and OIII. H alpha inserted into the red channel, OIII into the green and blue one.

ngc6823-nebula-2016-08-04-300s-30c-22ha-20oiiii-fl1000-gpu


M17 – Omega Nebula

Omega Nebula is a giant cloud of the hydrogen gas where new stars are born. It’s around 5000 light years from Solar system and it has 15 light years in diameter. The nebula is located in constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and it’s the most massive star-forming location in our galaxy. Visual observation is possible, but only with the telescope (medium or big aperture) and from the place with low light pollution.

Since this nebula is visible in summer, there is not enough time to collect enough photons during one night (short nights in summer). Therefore I had to photograph this deep space object several nights (4 in total) and I collected 7.2 hours of the exposure time. Since the light pollution is quite high on the south, I used narrowband filters to collect three channels (H alpha, OIII and SII). I was playing with pixel math and placing partially some narrowband images into Red Green Blue channels and here are the results of my experimentations:

M17-2016-07-05-22Ha32OIII32SII-300s-30C-FL1000-01 M17-2016-07-05-22Ha32OIII32SII-300s-30C-FL1000-RGB M17-2016-07-05-22Ha32OIII32SII-300s-30C-FL1000-SCNR


NGC 6888 – Crescent Nebula

In an emission nebula located in constellation Cygnus (swan), 5000 light years from Earth. The nebula has 25 light years (!) in diameter. This constellation, as well as the nebula is lying on the plane of our home galaxy Milky Way. Therefore there are so many stars visible.

The picture was processed by bi-color technique – this means that the picture is assembled from two narrow band images: hydrogen alpha (Ha) and ionized oxygen (OIII). Ha was inserted into red channel and OIII into green and blue.

NGC6888_2015-08-23_600s_22Ha_8OIII-30C


NGC2237 Rosette nebula

Another place where the stars are born is called Rosette nebula. It is a cloud of hydrogen gas, located 5000 light years from Earth in constellation Monoceros (unicorn). The diameter of this nebula is 50 light years.

This time I processed collected data by two different ways. Basic data are three monochromatic pictures captured through narrow band filters: Hydrogen alpha, Oxygen OIII and Sulfur SII.

First technique is called Hubble pallet – natural color of H alpha is red, but it’s inserted into green channel, oxygen is blue, therefore ends in blue channel and sulfur is even more “red” than the red color, therefore lands in red channel. After many different post-processing steps the final picture looks like this:

NGC2237-Rosette-2016-02-10-360s-40C-17Ha-19OIII-10SII-FL730-Hub

Second technique is more realistic for the human eyes and brain, and requires pixel math. H alpha is red, SII even more, therefore the combination of this pictures (SII + 0.8*H alpha) will end up in red channel. Green channel is a combination of 0.075*H alpha + OIII. Finally blue channel is just OIII.

NGC2237-Rosette-2016-02-10-360s-40C-17Ha-19OIII-10SII-FL730-Tri

I am quite curious which picture you like more…


B33 Horsehead Nebula

Horesehead nebula is a dark nebula located in constellation Orion, approximately 1550 light years from Earth. The bright star is on the picture is called Alnitak (eastern star of Orion’s belt). Horsehead shape is a cloud of cold gas, blocking the light coming from ionized hydrogen in the background.

This nebula is my favorite, but it’s not so simple to photograph, due to its dimness. Even with very fast telescope (f-stop 2.8) I had to use quite long exposure times – 6 minutes. The picture was postprocessed by bi-color technique, which means putting 27 H alpha pictures into red channel and 17 OIII pictures into green and blue channel. This was done in Pixinsight software.

B33-2016-02-05-FL730-40C-360s-27Ha-15OIII-LHa


M42 Great nebula in Orion

I think everyone knows constellation Orion, but only few people know that there is Great nebula in Orion, visible even by naked eye. It’s located between his belt and legs. The nebula is approximately 1300 light years from earth and it has 24 light years in diameter. Red color shows a lot of hydrogen gas, which is essence for star formation. In fact, the Orion nebula is the closes location from Earth, where the stars are born.

Since this nebula is visible by naked eye, with help of telescope even with sub-urban area, it’s not necessary to use long exposure times. I used just 3 minutes exposures and the picture yielded in nearly overexposed photo. Small nebula on the right side is NGC1973 Running man nebula.

M42-OrionNebula-2015-12-13-30-20x180sL-12x120sRGB2x2-FL730


IC1805 Heart nebula

Visual angle (visual size) of this nebula is several times bigger than visual angle/size of the full Moon; therefore I had to use the shortest focal length I have available. For DSOs like that I have small newton telescope with aperture 150 mm and focal length 600 mm. The focal length was reduced by ASA reducer to 438 mm.

Heart nebula is very dim DSO; therefore narrow band is good option to get some contrast. I managed to collect a lot of data for all 3 channels: Ha, OIII and SII. Final picture was composed in Hubble palette. This means OIII goes into blue, Ha in green and SII into red channel.

IC1805_Heart_2015-11-09-30C-600s-17Ha21OIII25SII-SQM_20_3_FL430_Ha2OIII2SII_noG


M16 Eagle nebula

Eagle nebula is a huge cloud of hydrogen gas. Probably the most famous picture of Hubble Space Telescope was taken here – Pillars of Creation. Here we can witness of a creation of new space objects. The hydrogen gas is attracted together and forms spherical object. As soon specific conditions occur, fusion reaction starts and star is born.

Eagle nebula was my first deep space object. However, I am not brave enough to publish my first picture here, because the quality was quite poor. I waited one year and made this picture with new equipment in decent quality. Since M16 is composed mainly from hydrogen alpha and has a little bit of OIII, I chose bi-color image. H alpha was inserted into red channel and OIII into green and blue.

M16_2015-08-05_300s-30C_11xOIII_11xHa_pixi